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9 Summary of main school links by subject
9 Summary of main school links by subject
Appendix 9 considers the main linkages between quarrying and the NC,
subject by subject.
As noted in the main text, science presents the greatest number of
opportunities and, being a core subject has a particular prominence.
There are also many important links with geography. This being so, the
most closely related statutory Programmes of Study are reproduced and
ranked in Appendix 7 and Appendix
8 for these two subjects. Appendix 9 is a less formal review of
these and other subjects, nevertheless it concentrates heavily upon
the requirements of the NC. For further details of the requirements
of the NC, see www.nc.uk.net; for
details of the Schemes of Work, see www.standards.dfes.gov.uk.
It should be noted that the exam specifications (syllabi) for these
subjects at GCSE, AS and A levels and GNVQs, generally extend these
themes further and into even more specific areas. However for most given
subjects, separate exam specifications are published by each of the
four examination agencies in England and Wales, for each exam level
and in very many cases, a ranges of options or allied subjects are offered,
resulting in a considerable (and growing) number of exam-related courses.
Each exam specification may run to say eighty pages and may change every
year or so. For these reasons it is impractical to summarise all relevant
courses. This can be unfortunate as in some years, certain of the topics
selected for teaching may be especially pertinent to quarrying. However,
as each school/LEA/teacher/department chooses the particular specifications
it wishes to work to, the specification concerned may not in any case
be being used locally anyway.
In addition, many post school and even degree courses can benefit from
similar connections to quarrying, albeit at a much more advanced level.
There are substantial areas of NC science which can be applied directly
or indirectly to the quarrying industry.
In the case of direct relevance, perhaps the most obvious area to most
people where the industry can be tapped as a resource, is that of Earth
science. A number of commentators have examined the extent to which
the Earth science content of the NC science curriculum has diminished
since the NC was first introduced (from c12% in 1989, to 4-5% in 2000
- King. 2000). This appears to be a very slender base upon which to
build major school/industry links. However, by comparison, the potential
for using exemplars and experiences derived from the quarrying industry
as a whole for school science is tremendous. Detailed examination of
the science curriculum (using the proportions of relevant Programmes
of Study) suggests that areas where the aggregates industry is directly
or indirectly relevant to NS science as a resource are approximately
KS1 - 94%
KS2 - 87%
KS3 - 87%
KS4* - 55%
*dual award science
Within these totals, the emphasis varies significantly in that the
industry could readily provide supportive ideas in respect of estimated
proportions of NC Science as follows:
National Curriculum Sections
Sc1 Scientific enquiry (a)
Sc2 Life processes/living things (b)
Sc3 Materials and their properties (c)
Sc4 Physical properties (d)
(Equivalent to: (a) Scientific Technique; (b) Biology; (c) Chemistry;
For convenience and brevity, the former general subject names in quotation
marks are used, although it should be noted that many teachers (indeed
most at KS1/2 = primary level) use the full NC titles.
From the above, it is apparent that "chemistry" and "physics"
are the main areas of potential interest. Most Earth science (formerly
comparable to "geology") is contained in chemistry.
This section of the document explores ways in which the quarrying industry
can help to support the National Curriculum in terms of subject matter.
The pertinent statements of the Programmes of Study are quoted in full
in Appendix 7, as they are mandatory
and provide in effect, a summary of the main elements which have to
be taught. In Appendix 7 the NC statements
are codified according to their degree of relevance to subjects which
the industry can offer.
On the other hand, the QCA Schemes of Work offer practical and much
used detail, which expands the Programmes of Study. However, the latter
are too extensive to be repeated here (each subject occupies thick loose-leaf
folder for one or two key stages). As a guide, Appendix
10 also reproduces the indexes for the Schemes of Work by subject
units, and includes an indication of the proportion of teaching time
Appendix 11 includes examples of how
the system cascades through from the statutory wording to practical
teaching at KS2. Appendix 12 looks at the
position 'in reverse', i.e. it takes the overarching theme of 'limestone'
and examines how this might be utilised to deliver various aspects of
KS3-4 NC Science. It is hoped that these two Appendices will assist
both industry and teaching staff to appreciate the system and potential
respectively. Appendix 13 reproduces support
material from the JESEI project; each module on that website cross-references
to the appropriate parts of the NC science for each of the countries
of the UK.
Specific Comments on the Science Curriculum
NB A detailed list of the actual statements relevant to quarrying
is given at Appendix 7.
As implied in the table above, the quarrying industry could be used
as a vehicle for virtually every aspect of scientific enquiry, and at
all key stages. It provides a plethora of themes and issues for which
to collect evidence and evaluate, make deductions/ predictions, judge
levels of uncertainty, suggest improvements to methodology etc.
SC1 - Scientific Enquiry sets out the main methodology and adopts an
investigative approach. It also treats learning about risk and risk
avoidance in a sequential way from KS1 to KS4.
In addition at KS3 and 4, "fieldwork" is specified as one
example of gathering data but this could be interpreted as scientific
work literally outside the classroom e.g. within the school grounds.
Furthermore, whereas biology does tend to make use of fieldwork, there
is virtually no culture of routine of fieldwork being undertaken in
teaching chemistry on physics particularly, at KS3 and 4.
In summary, ironically, in those very subject areas which have the
greatest affiliation to quarrying, there is virtually no tradition of
working outside the classroom. The situation, however, is fluid. Firstly
the curriculum has begun to settle down (although more changes are in
the offing for KS3-4). Secondly, particularly for GCSE teaching (KS4),
the QCA are encouraging innovative approaches to teaching, particularly
those having an applied practical or topical bias. Thirdly the chemical
industry over the last few years has built up close links with teaching
and hence has promoted an industrial visits. Counter to these positive
factors, is the whole raft of negative issues generally applying across
education to out of school visits (risk aversion, timetabling, tradition,
(NB In the next sections, codes in brackets e.g. (2d) refer
to the relevant statements in the NC for science)
The main opportunities to demonstrate 'life processes and living
things' lie in studying the relationship between wildlife (especially
plants) and habitat. Quarrying and especially wet sand and gravel operations,
offer an extensive variety of ecological niches, which can be studied
at a very large number of sites, particularly former workings. The range
and number of situations on offer, particularly on urban fringes, could
permit much of the non-human biology and particularly botanical aspects
to be referenced to fieldwork in quarries. Very few other types of land
use can illustrate conditions for growth ranging across bare rock, standing
water (deep and shallow), shorelines, heath, regenerated heather moorland,
marsh, muddy substrates, grassland, scrub, and eventually semi-mature
and mature woodland. Indeed, without the introduction of mineral working,
most such sites would either have been retained in largely in monoculture
farmland or developed, and effectively lost to wildlife for all time.
Furthermore, as aggregates working is an usually ongoing situation,
the possibilities for observing change over relatively short periods,
or making contrasting comparisons, or charting cause and effect, are
often even greater than in more established nature reserves.
There are very many examples of managed nature conservation after-uses
as evidenced by the number of sites entered for, or achieving QPA (or
previously SAGA) restoration awards.
Very many primary teachers were saddened to see 'fossils' removed from
their part of the curriculum in the early 1990s. Nevertheless, fossils
can still be used as an aide or a means of talking about the environment
in which animals and plants lived (eg tropical forests in the Coal Measures
or tropical seas and reefs in Silurian, Carboniferous and Jurassic periods,
dinosaurs etc) and also even as evidence that rocks are natural and
not manufactured. However, the fossil record as evidence for evolution
and variation/ extinction is not formally covered in 'biology' until
Ironically, the one section which would appear to be most relevant,
'The Earth and beyond' is almost entirely concerned with 'beyond', i.e.
space, rather than Earth itself and its structure.
The main strands which can be used in conjunction with quarrying, tend
to be indirect or generic. At KS4, these include electricity, forces,
characteristics of waves (including seismic waves and Earth structure
(3(m)), energy resources - their transfer efficient use and environmental
implications (5(a)(b)), radio activity (including rock dating (6(f)),
heat and sound transmission/insulation (3(l),5(a)), plate tectonics
resulting in the formation deformation and recycling of rocks (3(n)).
Similar topics are taught at KS3 (and even more basically at KS1-2).
There are therefore many possibilities across the whole age range in
for example studying mobile and fixed plant mechanisms (hydraulics,
levers, electric motors) to learn about general physical principles.
This deals essentially with materials, atomic structure their resultant
properties and applications. It has considerable relevance throughout
the whole 5-16 year old age range.
In summary, at is simplest, at KS1 'chemistry' is very much about looking
at similarities and differences between materials, sorting into groups,
recognition of common materials and differentiation between manufactured
and natural materials (1(a)-(d)). It also includes changes in shape
on heating and cooling (2(b)). Rock and clay are specifically mentioned
as examples (1(c), 2(b)).
At KS2, these ideas are extended and relations between properties and
uses are drawn (1(a)-(e)). Most significantly, rocks and soils are to
be studied and grouped according to their properties (1(d)). The concept
of chemical reactions is introduced, including non-reversible changes
(plaster of Paris with water is mentioned) (2(f)(g)). Finally the topic
of mixtures is discussed and in particular, differentiating size by
sieving (3(a)) and the use of filters (3(c)), evaporation etc as separation
mechanisms are explored (3(a)-(e)).
Clearly at this basic level, 'chemistry' embraces many of the processes
and materials which are commonplace in the industry and, coupled with
some of the elementary 'physics', this can be used to demonstrate how
minerals are selected and prepared for use.
KS3 contains important Earth science ('geology') units, including the
rock cycle (continuing the formation of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic
rocks) (2(d)-(f)), weathering (chemical and physical including erosion,
transportation) and other sedimentary processes (2(d), and geological
timescales (2(e)). However in those sections relating to chemistry per
se, there are also particular opportunities and given examples which
have a direct relevance e.g. combination through chemical reaction refers
to 'most minerals' and to carbon dioxide, sodium chloride and magnesium
oxide (1(e)). Similarly, it is noted that most rocks are mixtures rather
than compounds (1(g)). More sophisticated methods of separation are
also covered (1(h)). Later units cover combustion and its environmental
effects, acid rain etc((2(i)) and neutralising reactions (3(e)(f)).
Weathering of limestone by acids is specifically noted (3(g)). Indeed
there are excellent opportunities for employing limestone as a key material
to demonstrate many of these concepts (See Appendix 12)
KS4 teaching for the most part is in practical terms is usually geared
to GCSE examination specifications, but the NC does still form the essential
(statutory) framework. In KS4 chemistry, the main areas relate to the
variety of useful substances which can be made from rocks and minerals
(2g) - chlorine, sodium hydroxide, glass and cement are mentioned, the,
extraction of metals from ores (2h) the sequence of/evidence for rock
formation and deformation to be seen in the rock record itself (2r).
Other sections cover evidence for changes in past climates and oceans
(2q) and properties of a large range of elements including gases and
metals, and their compounds (3a-j). There is also further coverage of
neutralising reactions (3k).
For examples of how some of these aspects of science are applied in
a class laboratory setting, see www.jesei.org
: a full list of modules and extracts form some of those relating to
limestone are reproduced here as Appendix 13.
Relevant NC statements are given at Appendix
As noted previously, NC geography relates to KS 1-3 and is generic
in nature, for the most part, concerned with setting out methods of
approach, recording and developing geographical skills and techniques
(including fieldwork at all three KSs,) and communicating ideas. It
is less prescriptive in terms of subject matter to be studied, than
in science (or indeed earlier versions of NC geography), but it does
advise, or in some cases require, balances between a study of local
situations and European or Wider World contexts.
Although not necessarily apparent in all cases from Programmes of Study,
there tends to be a greater emphasis in practical teaching, upon on
'human' geography, rather than 'physical' geography; the latter in terms
of geographical processes, has been assumed by some to have been passed
to science to deliver, but this is not entirely the case. There has
also been a tendency to concentrate particularly upon environmental
issues (this is reflected in NC Geography statements) and in very recent
years, on geography as a mainstream means of delivering Education for
Sustainable Development (ESD), although the latter is in fact curriculum-wide
in its intent.
There are however very many useful 'hooks' in geography upon which
to hang strong links with quarrying, particularly at KS3. For example,
pupils have to describe and explain physical and human processes and
their impact on places and environments (4(b)); they have to look at
conflicting demands on the environment (6(j)); at resource issues, (including
sources and supply), resource planning and management (6(k)). The interrelationship
between population and resources is considered (6(f)), as is the basis
for individual settlements (6g). Elsewhere in KS3 geography, processes
responsible for producing various landforms and the role of rock type
and weathering in landforms are studied (6(e)), as are the effects of
hazards and human responses (6(e)). Earthquakes, tectonic, volcanic
and plate boundary activities are also covered (6 (b)).
A point to record is that some areas, notably weathering of rocks and
sedimentary processes appear to overlap to some degree with science
requirements and that the degree of co-ordination between science and
geography departments varies.
Consideration is being given to producing a series of web-based modules
for delivering Earth science-related elements of NC geography, comparable
to the JESEI project. (for details of progress, contact the National
Even after 1850, minerals, including stone, provided much of the raw
material for the expansion of towns and the growth of industry and thereby
often lends dramatic support to paper-based and electronic sources
The working of stone is the world's oldest industry, long pre-dating
agriculture and settled living. Stone, in the form of implements or
buildings is often the only relatively accessible tactile evidence available
to school students for most historical periods, before the mid-Victorian
era. Churches, castles and stone tools can often be linked back to their
original quarry sources. The basis for the Agricultural and Industrial
Revolutions was largely related to 'stone', either in terms of the nature
of soils and landscape, or the raw materials needed to power industrial
change or its influence on developing transport systems. Stone even
played its part in warfare e.g. in location and building of castles
through to World War II airfields. Each quarry also of course has its
own history, even if it only began in the 1940s or 50s, but some have
pedigrees going back to the eighteenth century or even earlier. Archival
evidence, old photographs, tools, machines, trucks, vehicles, railway
lines, canals, ledgers, wages books, leases, plans, cross-sections,
memories/experiences of present or former workers, old film footage,
old adverts and or old sales figures, may well provide a very rich source
of information for study. Clearly this may be taken at many levels according
to the age and abilities of the student (and could even include graduate
studies and post-graduate research). It can also serve to reinforce
the fact that quarries have a longstanding and yet evolving role in
a local community.
During KS2 pupils learn about change and continuity in their own area
and in other parts of the country. They learn about people, events and
places from the recent and more distant past. It may therefore be relevant
to look at the use of stone made by the Romans for road-building etc.
or similar topics. For a source of examples re KS 1-2, see 'Other
The above is relevant for KS3. However, note that at KS3 pupils learn
about people and events from the Middle Ages through to the twentieth
Pupils, depending on age, could look at the way in which the quarrying
industry has affected an area over a period of time in terms of economics,
technology or science. One could look at the way in which the extraction
of materials has changed - tools, equipment, and machinery. In terms
of changing lives, they could study the life of the modern quarry employee
and compared it to that of the past. Contrast how hand working up until
the mid 1950s has been superseded first by mechanisation then by electronically
controlled equipment. Plot the health and safety record through these
phases; ask why and how has it changed. Look at the size of the workforce
at the same time. How else have our lives changed because of the modern
efficient ways of working? Use stories from the past about how things
used to be done; eyewitness or news accounts of events at quarries;
old photographs of workers or working sites. Ask what we can learn from
these. If a quarry being visited is in the area where pupils live they
could carry out a local history study.
Also refer to any well-known historic buildings or landmarks made with
materials from the particular quarry being visited.
Almost every aspect of the industry where numbers are used is amenable
to application in school maths.
For all primary school children, the National Numeracy Strategy is
obligatory. Teachers may choose to present pupils with some tasks involving
simple mental calculations. Examples might be working out the average
numbers of lorries leaving with loads in a week, based on the average
per day; estimating the number of tonnes of material extracted in a
week/month/year; working out how many lorries are needed to shift load
'x', or how much fuel they consume. Simple charts, graphs, tables and
diagrams can be used, e.g. a graph showing the rate of extraction at
a quarry, a pie chart showing what quarried materials are used for,
or where they are sold. If quarried materials are combined into mixes,
such as in road asphalt or concrete, then it may be relevant to talk
to pupils about ratios or proportions used in the mix.
The KS3 National Strategy, which includes Maths as a subject, builds
on the National Numeracy Strategy at KSs1-2. In addition to the above,
teachers might ask pupils to become involved in activities such as these;
calculating or estimating the perimeter of the quarry they are visiting;
calculating areas or volumes related to the site visited; look at a
scale map of the area; create a computer spreadsheet to calculate operational
costs from basic details supplied to them; quantifying the numbers of
trees or amount of grass seed needed to restore a given area, assuming
planting at particular densities and losses to be replaced; working
out the amount of useful mineral and waste in a particular area, and,
given that certain overburden ratios, cut-offs and safety margins apply,
how much can actually be extracted; work out the cost of keeping water
out of the workings based on various flow rates. Handling large numbers,
angles, areas, volumes, algebra apply to many of these.
In summary, almost any operational, environmental or marketing activity
qwhich involves numbers can be used to provide real life applications
of maths; the level of sophistication simply progresses with each key
stage and beyond NC.
At KS1/2 pupils investigate materials in terms of shape, form pattern,
texture and sensory qualities. For a source of examples re KS 1-2, see
'Other Subjects' below.
At KS3 pupils may be asked to carry out an extended piece of work.
There are a number of units of work suggested which could possibly be
used in connection with a site visit to a quarry or similar environment,
or adapted for use. These are:
what's in a building
personal places, public spaces
Pupils can use a range of media to demonstrate their competence and
ideas; they usually have to record the steps involved from concept to
finished work. Examples are known of students of various ages using
quarries as inspiration for designing textures, corporate logos, physical
sourcing of materials, as a backdrop for display and presentation e.g.
fashion photography, advertisements, etc. In all these cases the wealth
of ideas and the need for access to gain information, materials, photographs,
recordings etc, must be framed within overriding health, safety and
In September 2002 the National Curriculum in England was extended to
include 'Citizenship'. It is a statutory subject at KS 3-4 but is not
obligatory at KS1-2. The programme of study for this subject says that
"teaching should ensure that knowledge and understanding about
becoming informed citizens are acquired and applied when developing
skills of enquiry and communication, and participation and responsible
action". Citizenship can be taught as a stand alone subject or
seen as being delivered in close association with other subjects, notably
science, geography, history, art, design and ICT in respect of environmental
issues. However treatment must be fair and where appropriate, balanced.
Pupils could be asked to express and explain their initial views about
quarrying. After learning about the work of a quarry and what materials
are used for, and who by, they may then be asked if their earlier views
have changed. Pupils are encouraged to discuss what they have learned.
At KS3 pupils can take this further. They could be asked to create
a questionnaire to obtain views on the aggregates industry, examine
a range of views and debate the subject. There are a number of units
of work that could be adapted by teachers and used in conjunction with
Units of particular relevance are as follows:
Crime and safety awareness
What's in the public interest?
People and the environment
At KS4 pupils are encouraged to look at sustainable development and
Local Agenda 21.
In addition to the formal descriptions of the curriculum content (see
introduction to this appendix), the Government has launched a scheme
under the title, 'Active Citizenship'. For more details, visit:
ICT, like citizenship can be taught alone or as used a means of delivering
most other subjects. There are therefore hundreds of different possibilities
of delivering ICT, using examples and ideas from the industry. Most
are self -evident.
At KS1/2 pupils could be asked to; create a wordbank; watch video clips,
e.g. of a quarry blast; compose a story about going to a quarry, or
an account of their visit; use the Internet to find out information
At KS3 pupils could look at statistics, e.g. on output; examples of
systems and control could be explained - particularly if they are computer-operated;
pupils could take digital photos and write a report about their visit
for the school paper or website.
Design and Technology
At KS1/2 pupils could look at materials and their properties, the uses
of materials being extracted and the basic processes employed for turning
them into products. Tools, machinery and equipment used on site are
also relevant. Pupils can carry out simple investigations such as looking
at the types of vehicles being used at a quarry. Back at school, they
could be asked to design a vehicle with a specific function in mind.
For a source of examples re KS 1-2, see 'Other
At KS3 pupils should gain a greater understanding of materials in terms
of characteristics and properties. They could look at the wider range
of applications for the materials being extracted. Also, pupils can
look at methods of production at a site, any systems and controls being
applied (particularly if they are electronic or computer operated),
and means of quality control can be demonstrated and discussed.
Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE)
Prior to the introduction of citizenship in 2002, similar issues were
delivered through the medium of PSHE, alongside personal hygiene, behavioural
matters etc. Some teachers taught about environmental issues under this
The National Literacy Strategy is mandatory in primary schools and is
seen by the Government as imperative in raising the levels of key skills.
As in the case of maths, English is a core subject and like maths and
ICT is a communications subject, in this case specifically embracing
speaking, listening, reading and writing. Although English enjoys a
discrete position in the timetable, literacy should be delivered across
the whole subject range.
The English curriculum therefore sets out a progression from pupils
communicating meaning through simple words and phrases, for example
talking and reading about things which interest them' recognising familiar
words in simple fiction and non-fiction texts, expressing likes and
dislikes etc. As they approach school leaving age, students should be
in a position to express themselves confidently and purposefully in
and about a range of contexts and for a range of purposes, indicating
that they have listened or read perceptively, and using apt vocabulary.
They should be able to recognise structures and styles of communication,
initiate and sustain discussion in speech or in written form, analysing
how information and ideas are conveyed in different forms.
Most of the opportunities in English are therefore self evident. Whether
it be in describing a visit to a quarry, discussing the pros and cans
of an operation or asking pertinent questions of a member of quarry
company staff. Obviously, here again the level of sophistication will
vary with that of the age, competence and experience of the student.
There is considerable scope for creative writing, assessing claims in
debate eg from local news v. technical press reports, in role play and
drama. In this last context, the reader is referred to www.jesei.org
and to the two 'chemistry' units entitled: 'The Limestone Inquiry, 21st
Century' and 'Limestone in your Everyday Life' both of which can be
delivered via role play. Parts of these units are reproduced in Appendix
12 and although intended for KS 3-4, could be adapted for other
groups. In similar vein, e.g. to mark special occasions or events, there
are a number of theatre groups which specialise in dramatic presentations
of scientific and technological matters.
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) which differs from some
of the formal school subjects in that it is part of an overarching Government
strategy, is intended to be applied at all levels of education.
The whole range of issues relating to ESD has recently received the
special attention of Charles Clarke, Secretary of State for Education.
Not only does this cover learning and teaching, but school management.
'Our challenge is great: to enable all citizens to exercise
informed and responsible choices. Together we can do it.'
Sustainable development action plan for education and skills: DfES 2003
In the document just quoted, ESD (i.e. the teaching and learning element),
is one of four key objectives. Partnership and new thinking at the local
level is seen as critically important. The report suggests that by creating
opportunities for learners of all ages to make a contribution, that
the impact will be greatest.
From mid 2003, ESD principles have been progressively introduced into
further and community education, vocational training (including apprenticeships
and national occupational standards, CPD/professional accreditation
programmes) by the government, training and professional organisations
Curriculum resources for schools are now being developed with the encouragement
of DfES, by the relevant professional subject associations and others.
One of the main sub-themes is that of engaging learners (and indeed
communities) with decision-making processes. This is already being promoted
via 'citizenship' (which has formed a part of the National Curriculum
from September 2002 - see 'Citizenship' above). Another key sub-theme
is international understanding (including resources). There is considerable
emphasis on partnership and relating to real life situations but perhaps
surprisingly, no specific mention of industry involvement nor of the
value of fieldwork in the DfES Action Plan. However some of the work
with schools in both ESD and citizenship cited elsewhere as exemplary,
does embrace both fieldwork and industry (including those engaged in
mineral extraction) e.g. visit www.csvcommunitypartners.org.uk/cgi/prjsrch.cgi.
As mentioned in the main text of the report, almost any subject taught
in schools can find at least some useful links with the quarrying industry.
The other standard school subjects not covered above are music, religious
education and physical education. For example, in music, the NSC was
involved in a project with the East of England Orchestra in which selected
secondary school student spent a week composing music in the six former
quarries at the NSC and a neighbouring large operational site; pupils
drew inspiration from the fact that the local limestones were deposited
in tropical seas, from scrap metal found on site, the sound resonances
in the quarries themselves, reversing and blasting sirens and processing
noises. Their studies culminated in a public performance which moved
from quarry to quarry and attracted local press and TV coverage.
At KS1-2 other examples are given in Teaching Primary Earth Science
Issue 44 (produced by ESTA - Spring 2004), covering RE, D and T, art
and history. For example in RE building materials can be studied by
visiting local churches or headstones and comparing them with possible
In addition as one progresses beyond KS4 to GCSE, AS, A Levels and
GNVQs, so the content and range of subjects studied becomes ever more
varied. For example GNVQs available include land and environment (essentially,
agriculture/horticulture /forestry), leisure and tourism, applied science.